# Servo Control with Servo Library

## Introduction

While most projects in this tutorial series have covered the control of LEDs, another common and useful application for microcontrollers is motor control. Microcontrollers can conveniently regulate the speed and position of a motor and are easy to implement (most modern toys, like remote-controlled cars, contain a basic microcontroller to regulate their speed). The alternative to using microcontrollers is a complicated, entirely analog circuit. Such a circuit is difficult to understand without a more advanced understanding of electronics.

This project implements a servo control circuit that will use the chipKIT™ board to read button presses and move the position of a servo's motor shaft accordingly. A servo is a special type of motor designed to align its motor shaft (the portion of the motor that will physically rotate) to the exact orientation according to the value of an input signal. This is opposed to a normal electric motor that will rotate a shaft at a constant rate once turned on.

More precisely, the project will use two buttons; one button to tell the servo to rotate left, and the other to tell it to rotate to the right. The MPIDE servo library will handle all of the low level tasks needed to control the servo. This simplifies our project immensely. It allows us to only worry about the position of the servo, and not all of the low-level tasks the chipKIT board needs to conduct to accomplish positioning the motor.

## Inventory:

Qty Description Typical Image Schematic Symbol Breadboard Image
2 Four-port buttons
2 10kΩ resistors
1 Tower Pro SG92R servo

## Servo Theory

As we mentioned above, a servo is a specialized type of motor used for positioning. Most servos have a set range of motion in which their motor shafts can rotate. (This range is normally any point within a 180 degree arc.) While there are many readily available servos that have ranges of 60, 90, and even 360 degrees (360 degree servos can rotate continuously, but very slowly), this project uses an SG92R servo (pictured in Fig. 1) that only has an angle span of 180 degrees.

Servos sacrifice the ability to rotate freely for increased accuracy. With a normal electric motor (like what you might find in a toy car), if you tried to rotate the motor's shaft exactly 90 degrees, it is more likely that you will overshoot or undershoot the desired position.

In general, a normal electric motor is designed to run continuously (typically the motor shaft completes hundreds of revolutions in a single second) and does not perform well at very short distances (under a single revolution). A normal electric motor is an on/off device (i.e., the motor is turned on when a correct voltage is applied), so positioning the motor is a matter of turning the motor “on” for the correct amount of time. Achieving correct timing can be somewhat difficult and is what leads to undershooting or overshooting the position.

Servos behave in the opposite fashion. A servo aligns its motor shaft according to the value of an input signal. For example, if the servo receives a signal representing 90 degrees (servos accept pulse-width modulation (PWM) signals, which will be discussed later), it moves the motor shaft to the 90 degree point on the device. This targeted approach is what increases the accuracy in positioning the motor shaft.

Upon examining the SG92R servo, you will see that it has three input wires: red (power), brown (ground), and orange (control). The “power” line is exactly what its name suggests. This line needs to be connected to the positive terminal of a voltage source in order to power the servo. The power line accepts a small range of voltages between 4.8V and 6V, where the applied voltage is directly proportional to how quickly the servo can rotate. It is important to never supply a negative voltage to the power line, as it could damage the servo. A negative voltage is simply a voltage source that has a lower potential energy than ground. For chipKIT boards, a negative voltage is produced when you swap “power” and “ground” lines, which should be avoided. In this project the power line will be connected to the 5V pin of the chipKIT board.

The “ground” line is simply the ground of the servo. This line needs to be connected to the ground of the device that is powering the servo. For this project, since we are powering the servo via the chipKIT board, the ground line will be connected to the chipKIT's ground (GND) pin.

The “control” line, as one might expect, is used to send a signal to the servo telling it which angle it should rotate to. The servo accepts PWM type signals and can determine the desired angle by the “duty cycle” of the signal.

A PWM signal will always transmit for a set amount of time, which is called a period (this period is around 30 to 50 ms for servos). At the start of this period, the state of the signal is always HIGH. At a point in time within the period (this point is chosen by the sender of the signal), the signal is then asserted LOW. Information is conveyed to the receiver by comparing the percentage of time the signal is asserted HIGH in the period, over the total length of time of the period (this percentage is called the “duty cycle”). Given a PWM signal with a period of 50 ms, if the signal is asserted HIGH for 25 ms, then it would have a duty cycle of 50%.

In terms of our project, when the servo receives a PWM signal that is asserted HIGH for 1000 μs, the servo interprets this as an angle of 0 degrees (i.e., it positions the motor shaft at angle 0). Additionally, asserting HIGH for 2000 μs corresponds to 180 degrees. So, an angle between 0 and 180 degrees can be chosen by varying the asserted HIGH time of the PWM signal between 1000 μs and 2000 μs.

While this may sound somewhat daunting at first, the MPIDE servo library will handle all of the PWM signaling for us, allowing us to simply specify a desired angle.

## Step 1: Setting up the Circuit

Each of the following steps is referenced by the numbered icons in Fig. 2.

1. Connect the chipKIT's 5V pin to the 5V bus strip.
2. Connect the chipKIT's GND pin to the ground bus strip.
3. Connect the chipKIT's 3.3V pin to the 3.3V bus strip.
4. Place two buttons into the breadboard so that they span the gap between columns and configure the buttons as shown in Fig. 3. As with our other projects, the buttons used for this project are four-terminal devices. Terminals are organized into two groups, where each group is electrically connected. Figure 3 designates these groups as “A” terminals and “B” terminals.
5. For the “left button”, connect a 10k resistor to one of the button's “B” terminals. Then, connect the other end of the resistor to the ground bus strip. Repeat this step for the “right button.”
6. Using a wire, connect one of the left button's “A” terminals to the 3.3V bus strip. Repeat this step for the right button.
7. Using a wire, connect one of the right button's “B” terminals to the chipKIT's pin 6.
8. Using a wire, connect one of the left button's “B” terminals to the chipKIT's pin 7.
9. Connect the servo's control line to chipKIT pin 9. The servo connector is a female connector, so just use a male to male wire to connect from the chipKIT board to the servo connector. (You can use a cable gender changer to plug straight into the breadboard if it's more convenient. A gender changer is just a male to male, or female to female adapter for connecting cables with that have incompatible connectors).
10. Connect the servo's power line to the 5V bus strip, and then connect the ground line of the servo to the ground bus strip. As with the servo's control line, the power and ground connectors are female connectors, so use a male to male wire to connect from the chipKIT board to the servo connector.

## Libraries in MPIDE

For this project, we will use the MPIDE servo library to handle all of the PWM signaling. Before discussing the code for the project, we will explain what exactly a library is in MPIDE, how to import them, and use them.

Libraries are commonly used in programing as a method of organizing and reusing segments of code (specifically functions and classes). You are probably quite familiar now with how functions are written and used. If you were to call one of your own functions in a project, you understand that first you have to write the function definition and body before you can regularly use that function. (A function definition and body is the portion of code outside of loop() that defines what the function accomplishes.)

Now, consider functions like digitalRead() and digitalWrite(). We use these functions all the time, and yet we never have to write the function definition and body code for them. Since these functions are so commonly used, their function code exists within a repository called a library. MPIDE looks through these libraries, in addition to looking at your program code for a function's code. By placing the function code there, it allows us to reuse code. It doesn't make sense to rewrite a function every time you start new program sketch. So, if the function acts identical to code you have already written, it is more practical to reuse it from sketch to sketch.

Normally, you have to tell MPIDE that you want to use a library (this is called importing) before you can access any of its functions in your sketch. You have probably noticed that when you start a sketch, you can automatically use functions like digitalRead or digitalWrite without having to tell MPIDE anything. This is because they belong to a handful of functions that are contained in a standard library. These functions are so common to any program sketch that MPIDE automatically includes them.

If you want to use functions from libraries that are less common (like the servo library), you have to go through the process of importing them. A library is imported by simply going to MPIDE toolbar menu and selecting Sketch->Import Library. Then, select the menu you want from the drop down menu. This will allow you to use any function within the library in your program sketch.

## The Servo library

Now that we know what a library is, we can describe how the servo library will help us control our device. (You can follow the link at the right if you need to review classes and methods.) The first step in controlling a servo is instantiating a Servo class object:

Servo myServoObject;

Once you have created your Servo class object, you need to use the “attach” method to tell the chipKIT board which pin the servo object will output to (this pin provides the PWM signal that will be fed to the servo's control line):

myServoObject.attach(9);

ChipKIT boards have dedicated pins for transmitting PWM signals. Because of this, the attach method can only be called on specific pins (pins 3,5,6,9, and 10). Now we can actually use our servo by calling the “write” method. For example, the following line of code will position the servo at 90 degrees:

MyServoObject.write(90);

Conversely, if we wanted to know what angle our servo was at, the “read” method can always be used to return the value of the last “write” method called for the servo object:

## Step 2: Software code

Import the servo library into MPIDE by selecting Sketch->Import Library->Servo, as shown in Fig. 4.

You can verify that the library was imported by checking to whether #include <Servo.h> is at the very top of your sketch (see the first line of the program code below).

Now, implement the following project code. The variable “degreeGlb” will represent the position of the servo at any given time. The sketch will check whether you have pressed the left button and decreases the “degreeGlb” variable by the value of the “mySpeedGlb” constant. (Likewise, if the right button is pressed, the “degreeGlb” variable is incremented in the same fashion.) The “mySpeedGlb” constant is simply the rate of speed at which the servo rotates. You can try increasing or decreasing this value to change the rotation speed of your servo. After the sketch finishes checking for button input, it will move the servo according to the degree value.



#include <Servo.h>

const int btnLGlb = 7;
const int btnRGlb = 6;
const int mySpeedGlb = 2;

Servo myServo;
int degreeGlb;

void setup()
{
// Set the initial position of the servo to 90 degrees.
degreeGlb = 90;

// Designate the servo to output to pin 9.
myServo.attach(9);

pinMode(btnLGlb, INPUT);
pinMode(btnRGlb, INPUT);

}

void loop()
{

myServo.write(degreeGlb);

// If Left button is pressed decrease the servo angle, if the right button is pressed increase it.
degreeGlb = degreeGlb - mySpeedGlb;
}
degreeGlb = degreeGlb + mySpeedGlb;
}

// If the position is outside the range of 0 or 180, then set it to the max/min bound.
if(degreeGlb < 0){
degreeGlb = 0;
}
if(degreeGlb > 180){
degreeGlb = 180;
}

// Waits for the servo to move.
delay(10);
}


## Summary:

This project implements a servo control circuit that will use the chipKIT™ board to read button presses and move the position of a servo's motor shaft accordingly. A servo is a special type of motor designed to align its motor shaft (the portion of the motor that will physically rotate) to the exact orientation according to the value of an input signal. This is opposed to a normal electric motor that will rotate a shaft at a constant rate once turned on.

##### Core Concepts:
• Servo operations
• PWM signaling
• Libraries
• Importing a library
• The servo class
##### Functions Introduced:
• Servo
• Servo.attach()