# Real Analog

Real Analog is a comprehensive set of educational materials designed for use in introductory analog electrical circuit classes. The materials are presented as a series of modules. Each module corresponds to approximately one week of instruction in a typical university setting and contains:
• Three videotaped lectures
• Written materials corresponding to material presented in the lectures
• Exercises corresponding to individual lectures, designed to provide the student with immediate reinforcement of specific lecture topics
• One homework assignment
• One lab assignment, with an associated overview lecture describing the lab assignment goals and procedures
Modules provide both theoretical concepts as well as practical applications of these concepts. Use of the presented circuit analysis techniques in the context of circuit design is thus emphasized where possible, especially in the lab assignments. Experience indicates that this approach enhances student enjoyment and interest in the topics presented and improves comprehension of basic concepts.

Lab assignments are built around use of Digilent's Electronics Explorer board and Digilent's Analog Parts kit; students are encouraged to acquire a board and parts kit, since recent studies have shown that students with unrestricted access to design tools learn better, learn faster, and have a more enjoyable experience. Further, when more student work is performed outside the lab, teaching resources can be selectively applied where they are needed most.

Module 1: Introduction to basic parameters and laws necessary for analysis of resistive circuits. The exhaustive approach to analysis of resistive networks is introduced.

 Lecture 1 Slides Lecture 1 Video Exercises 1 Chapter 1.1 Circuit parameters and sign conventions Lecture 2 Slides Lecture 2 Video Exercises 2 Circuit parameters and sign conventions (Review) Chapter 1.2 Power sources Chapter 1.3 Resistors and Ohm's Law Lecture 3 Slides Lecture 3 Video Exercises 3 Chapter 1.4 Kirchoff's Laws Lab 0 Guide Lab 0 Video Lab 0 Worksheet Homework 1
Module 2: Analysis of resistive circuits using circuit reduction methods. This approach generally consists of reducing the circuit of interest to an equivalent circuit with a single unknown parameter. Effects of non-ideal power sources, voltmeters and ammeters are presented in the context of this technique.

 Lecture 4 Slides Lecture 4 Video Exercises 4 Chapter 1.4 Kirchoff's Laws (Review) Chapter 1.5 Series & Parallel Circuit Elements & Circuit Reduction Lecture 5 Slides Lecture 5 Video Exercises 5 Ser. & Par. Circuit Elements & Circuit Reduction - cont. Lecture 6 Slides Lecture 6 Video Exercises 6 Ser. & Par. Circuit Elements & Circuit Reduction - cont. Chapter 1.5.1 Non-Ideal Power Sources Chapter 1.5.2 Practical Voltage and Current Measurement Lab 1 Guide Lab 1 Video Lab 1 Worksheet Homework 2
Module 3: Nodal and mesh analysis methods. Nodal and mesh analysis approaches are more general than circuit reduction methods, but less labor intensive than the exhaustive method presented in Module 1.

 Lecture 7 Slides Lecture 7 Video Exercises 7 Chapter 1.6.0 Nodal and Mesh Analysis Background Chapter 1.6.1 Nodal analysis Lecture 8 Slides Lecture 8 Video Exercises 8 Chapter 1.6.2 Mesh analysis Lecture 9 Slides Lecture 9 Video Exercises 9 Mesh analysis - cont. Lab 2 Guide Lab 2 Video Lab 2 Worksheet Homework 3
Module 4: Representation of electrical circuits as systems. Linearity and superposition are presented in the context of systems' input-output relations. These results are used to develop Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems. Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are introduced and some simple op-amp based circuits are analyzed.

 Lecture 10 Slides Lecture 10 Video Exercises 10 Chapter 1.7.0 Introduction to Signals and Systems Chapter 1.7.1 Linear Systems Chapter 1.7.2 Superposition Chapter 1.7.3 Two-terminal networks Chapter 1.7.4 Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems Lecture 11 Slides Lecture 11 Video Exercises 11 Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems - cont. Chapter 1.7.5 Maximum power transfer Lecture 12 Slides Lecture 12 Video Exercises 12 Maximum power transfer - cont. Chapter 1.8.0 Ideal Operational amplifiers Chapter 1.8.1 Analysis of operational amplifier circuits Lab 3 Guide Lab 3 Video Lab 3 Worksheet Homework 4
Module 5: Additional operational amplifier-based circuits and their representation as dependent sources. Time-varying signals are presented and dynamic systems are introduced in the context of energy storage. Capacitors are presented as one basic electrical energy storage element.

 Lecture 13 Slides Lecture 13 Video Exercises 13 Chapter 1.8.0 Operational amplifiers (Review) Chapter 1.8.1 Analysis of operational amplifier circuits (Review) Chapter 1.8.2 Selected Operational Amplifier Circuits Lecture 14 Slides Lecture 14 Video Exercises 14 Chapter 2.0 Dynamic systems Chapter 2.1 Time varying signals Lecture 15 Slides Lecture 15 Video Exercises 15 Chapter 2.2 Capacitors Lab 4 Guide Lab 4 Video Lab 4 Worksheet Homework 5
Module 6: Inductors are presented as a second type of electrical energy storage element. Differential equations governing first order electrical circuits are derived and the natural and step responses of first order circuits determined.

 Lecture 16 Slides Lecture 16 Video Exercises 16 Chapter 2.3 Inductors Chapter 2.4.1 Introduction to first order systems Chapter 2.4.2 Natural response of RC circuits Lecture 17 Slides Lecture 17 Video Exercises 17 Chapter 2.4.3 Natural Response of RL circuits Lecture 18 Slides Lecture 18 Video Exercises 18 Chapter 2.4.4 Forced Response of first order systems Chapter 2.4.5 First order circuit step response Lab 5 Guide Lab 5 Video Lab 5 Worksheet Homework 6
Module 7: The forced response of first order systems is revisited and the concepts of DC gain and bias points are briefly discussed. Second order circuits are introduced and their natural response determined. The mathematics of sinusoidal signals and complex exponentials is reviewed and the results are used to interpret the second order circuit response.

 Lecture 19 Slides Lecture 19 Video Exercises 19 Chapter 2.4.5 First order circuit step response (Review) Lecture 20 Slides Lecture 20 Video Exercises 20 Chapter 2.5.1 Introduction to second order systems Lecture 21 Slides Lecture 21 Video Exercises 21 Chapter 2.5.2 Natural Response of Second Order Systems Chapter 2.5.3 Sinusoidal Signals and Complex Exponentials Lab 6 Guide Lab 6 Video Lab 6 Worksheet Homework 7
Module 8: Classification of second order systems by damping ratio, and a qualitative interpretation of the natural response is presented in terms of damping ratio and natural frequency. Second order system step response is determined and estimation of the step response of under-damped systems from the governing equation is discussed. This module concludes with a brief presentation of higher-order systems, state variable models, and numerical simulation of circuit responses.

 Lecture 22 Slides Lecture 22 Video Exercises 22 Chapter 2.5.4 Natural Response of Second Order Systems - Part II Chapter 2.5.5 Step Response of Second Order Systems Lecture 23 Slides Lecture 23 Video Exercises 23 Step Response of Second Order Systems - cont. Lecture 24 Slides Lecture 24 Video Exercises 24 Chapter 2.6.1 Introduction to State Variable Models Chapter 2.6.2 Response Simulation using MATLAB® Lab 7 Guide Lab 7 Video Lab 7 Worksheet Homework 8
Module 9: Introduction to steady-state sinusoidal responses and phasor analysis of electrical circuits. Complex arithmetic is reviewed. The impedance method for AC analysis of electrical circuits is presented.

 Lecture 25 Slides Lecture 25 Video Exercises 25 Chapter 2.7.0 Introduction to steady state sinusoidal analysis Chapter 2.7.1 Sinusoidal signals, complex exponential, and phasor Chapter 2.7.2 Sinusoidal steady-state system response Lecture 26 Slides Lecture 26 Video Exercises 26 Sinusoidal steady-state system response - cont. Chapter 2.7.3 Phasor representations of circuit elements Lecture 27 Slides Lecture 27 Video Exercises 27 Phasor representations of circuit elements - cont. Chapter 2.7.4 Direct frequency domain circuit analysis Lab 8 Guide Lab 8 Video Lab 8 Worksheet Homework 9
Module 10: Frequency response of electrical circuits. Magnitude and phase responses of first and second order systems are determined. Relationships between time-domain and frequency-domain system responses of first and second order systems are provided.

 Lecture 28 Slides Lecture 28 Video Exercises 28 Chapter 2.7.4 Direct frequency domain circuit analysis (Review) Chapter 2.7.5 Frequency domain system characterization Chapter 2.8.0 Frequency response Lecture 29 Slides Lecture 29 Video Exercises 29 Chapter 2.8.1 Signal spectra & frequency response plots Chapter 2.8.2 Introduction to frequency selective circuits and filters Lecture 30 Slides Lecture 30 Video Exercises 30 Chapter 2.8.3 Introduction to Bode plots Lab 9 Guide Lab 9 Video Lab 9 Worksheet Homework 10
Module 11: Sinusoidal steady-state power analysis and complex power.

 Lecture 31 Slides Lecture 31 Video Exercises 31 Chapter 2.9.0 AC power Chapter 2.9.1 AC power analysis Lecture 32 Slides Lecture 32 Video Exercises 32 Chapter 2.9.2 Power factor correction Lab 10 Guide Lab 10 Video Lab 10 Worksheet Homework 11