Real Analog

Real Analog is a comprehensive set of educational materials designed for use in introductory analog electrical circuit classes. The materials are presented as a series of modules. Each module corresponds to approximately one week of instruction in a typical university setting and contains:
  • Three videotaped lectures
  • Written materials corresponding to material presented in the lectures
  • Exercises corresponding to individual lectures, designed to provide the student with immediate reinforcement of specific lecture topics
  • One homework assignment
  • One lab assignment, with an associated overview lecture describing the lab assignment goals and procedures
Modules provide both theoretical concepts as well as practical applications of these concepts. Use of the presented circuit analysis techniques in the context of circuit design is thus emphasized where possible, especially in the lab assignments. Experience indicates that this approach enhances student enjoyment and interest in the topics presented and improves comprehension of basic concepts.

Lab assignments are built around use of Digilent's Electronics Explorer board and Digilent's Analog Parts kit; students are encouraged to acquire a board and parts kit, since recent studies have shown that students with unrestricted access to design tools learn better, learn faster, and have a more enjoyable experience. Further, when more student work is performed outside the lab, teaching resources can be selectively applied where they are needed most.

Note: To see the newer version of Circuits 1 for the Analog Discovery, click here.

Module 1: Introduction to basic parameters and laws necessary for analysis of resistive circuits. The exhaustive approach to analysis of resistive networks is introduced.

  Lecture 1 Slides   Lecture 1 Video   Exercises 1   Chapter 1.1   Circuit parameters and sign conventions
  Lecture 2 Slides   Lecture 2 Video   Exercises 2       Circuit parameters and sign conventions (Review)
              Chapter 1.2   Power sources
              Chapter 1.3   Resistors and Ohm's Law
  Lecture 3 Slides   Lecture 3 Video   Exercises 3   Chapter 1.4   Kirchoff's Laws

  Lab 0 Guide   Lab 0 Video   Lab 0 Worksheet   Homework 1
Module 2: Analysis of resistive circuits using circuit reduction methods. This approach generally consists of reducing the circuit of interest to an equivalent circuit with a single unknown parameter. Effects of non-ideal power sources, voltmeters and ammeters are presented in the context of this technique.

  Lecture 4 Slides   Lecture 4 Video   Exercises 4   Chapter 1.4   Kirchoff's Laws (Review)
              Chapter 1.5   Series & Parallel Circuit Elements & Circuit Reduction
  Lecture 5 Slides   Lecture 5 Video   Exercises 5       Ser. & Par. Circuit Elements & Circuit Reduction - cont.
  Lecture 6 Slides   Lecture 6 Video   Exercises 6       Ser. & Par. Circuit Elements & Circuit Reduction - cont.
              Chapter 1.5.1   Non-Ideal Power Sources
              Chapter 1.5.2   Practical Voltage and Current Measurement

  Lab 1 Guide   Lab 1 Video   Lab 1 Worksheet   Homework 2
Module 3: Nodal and mesh analysis methods. Nodal and mesh analysis approaches are more general than circuit reduction methods, but less labor intensive than the exhaustive method presented in Module 1.

  Lecture 7 Slides   Lecture 7 Video   Exercises 7   Chapter 1.6.0   Nodal and Mesh Analysis Background
              Chapter 1.6.1   Nodal analysis
  Lecture 8 Slides   Lecture 8 Video   Exercises 8   Chapter 1.6.2   Mesh analysis
  Lecture 9 Slides   Lecture 9 Video   Exercises 9       Mesh analysis - cont.

  Lab 2 Guide   Lab 2 Video   Lab 2 Worksheet   Homework 3
Module 4: Representation of electrical circuits as systems. Linearity and superposition are presented in the context of systems' input-output relations. These results are used to develop Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems. Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are introduced and some simple op-amp based circuits are analyzed.

  Lecture 10 Slides   Lecture 10 Video   Exercises 10   Chapter 1.7.0   Introduction to Signals and Systems
              Chapter 1.7.1   Linear Systems
              Chapter 1.7.2   Superposition
              Chapter 1.7.3   Two-terminal networks
              Chapter 1.7.4   Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems
  Lecture 11 Slides   Lecture 11 Video   Exercises 11       Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems - cont.
              Chapter 1.7.5   Maximum power transfer
  Lecture 12 Slides   Lecture 12 Video   Exercises 12       Maximum power transfer - cont.
              Chapter 1.8.0   Ideal Operational amplifiers
              Chapter 1.8.1   Analysis of operational amplifier circuits

  Lab 3 Guide   Lab 3 Video   Lab 3 Worksheet   Homework 4
Module 5: Additional operational amplifier-based circuits and their representation as dependent sources. Time-varying signals are presented and dynamic systems are introduced in the context of energy storage. Capacitors are presented as one basic electrical energy storage element.

  Lecture 13 Slides   Lecture 13 Video   Exercises 13   Chapter 1.8.0   Operational amplifiers (Review)
              Chapter 1.8.1   Analysis of operational amplifier circuits (Review)
              Chapter 1.8.2   Selected Operational Amplifier Circuits
  Lecture 14 Slides   Lecture 14 Video   Exercises 14   Chapter 2.0   Dynamic systems
              Chapter 2.1   Time varying signals
  Lecture 15 Slides   Lecture 15 Video   Exercises 15   Chapter 2.2   Capacitors

  Lab 4 Guide   Lab 4 Video   Lab 4 Worksheet   Homework 5
Module 6: Inductors are presented as a second type of electrical energy storage element. Differential equations governing first order electrical circuits are derived and the natural and step responses of first order circuits determined.

  Lecture 16 Slides   Lecture 16 Video   Exercises 16   Chapter 2.3   Inductors
              Chapter 2.4.1   Introduction to first order systems
              Chapter 2.4.2   Natural response of RC circuits
  Lecture 17 Slides   Lecture 17 Video   Exercises 17   Chapter 2.4.3   Natural Response of RL circuits
  Lecture 18 Slides   Lecture 18 Video   Exercises 18   Chapter 2.4.4   Forced Response of first order systems
              Chapter 2.4.5   First order circuit step response

  Lab 5 Guide   Lab 5 Video   Lab 5 Worksheet   Homework 6
Module 7: The forced response of first order systems is revisited and the concepts of DC gain and bias points are briefly discussed. Second order circuits are introduced and their natural response determined. The mathematics of sinusoidal signals and complex exponentials is reviewed and the results are used to interpret the second order circuit response.

  Lecture 19 Slides   Lecture 19 Video   Exercises 19   Chapter 2.4.5   First order circuit step response (Review)
  Lecture 20 Slides   Lecture 20 Video   Exercises 20   Chapter 2.5.1   Introduction to second order systems
  Lecture 21 Slides   Lecture 21 Video   Exercises 21   Chapter 2.5.2   Natural Response of Second Order Systems
              Chapter 2.5.3   Sinusoidal Signals and Complex Exponentials

  Lab 6 Guide   Lab 6 Video   Lab 6 Worksheet   Homework 7
Module 8: Classification of second order systems by damping ratio, and a qualitative interpretation of the natural response is presented in terms of damping ratio and natural frequency. Second order system step response is determined and estimation of the step response of under-damped systems from the governing equation is discussed. This module concludes with a brief presentation of higher-order systems, state variable models, and numerical simulation of circuit responses.

  Lecture 22 Slides   Lecture 22 Video   Exercises 22   Chapter 2.5.4   Natural Response of Second Order Systems - Part II
              Chapter 2.5.5   Step Response of Second Order Systems
  Lecture 23 Slides   Lecture 23 Video   Exercises 23     Step Response of Second Order Systems - cont.
  Lecture 24 Slides   Lecture 24 Video   Exercises 24   Chapter 2.6.1   Introduction to State Variable Models
              Chapter 2.6.2   Response Simulation using MATLAB®

  Lab 7 Guide   Lab 7 Video   Lab 7 Worksheet   Homework 8
Module 9: Introduction to steady-state sinusoidal responses and phasor analysis of electrical circuits. Complex arithmetic is reviewed. The impedance method for AC analysis of electrical circuits is presented.

  Lecture 25 Slides   Lecture 25 Video   Exercises 25   Chapter 2.7.0   Introduction to steady state sinusoidal analysis
              Chapter 2.7.1   Sinusoidal signals, complex exponential, and phasor
              Chapter 2.7.2   Sinusoidal steady-state system response
  Lecture 26 Slides   Lecture 26 Video   Exercises 26     Sinusoidal steady-state system response - cont.
              Chapter 2.7.3   Phasor representations of circuit elements
  Lecture 27 Slides   Lecture 27 Video   Exercises 27     Phasor representations of circuit elements - cont.
              Chapter 2.7.4   Direct frequency domain circuit analysis

  Lab 8 Guide   Lab 8 Video   Lab 8 Worksheet   Homework 9    
Module 10: Frequency response of electrical circuits. Magnitude and phase responses of first and second order systems are determined. Relationships between time-domain and frequency-domain system responses of first and second order systems are provided.

  Lecture 28 Slides   Lecture 28 Video   Exercises 28   Chapter 2.7.4   Direct frequency domain circuit analysis (Review)
              Chapter 2.7.5   Frequency domain system characterization
              Chapter 2.8.0   Frequency response
  Lecture 29 Slides   Lecture 29 Video   Exercises 29   Chapter 2.8.1   Signal spectra & frequency response plots
              Chapter 2.8.2   Introduction to frequency selective circuits and filters
  Lecture 30 Slides   Lecture 30 Video   Exercises 30    
              Chapter 2.8.3   Introduction to Bode plots

  Lab 9 Guide   Lab 9 Video   Lab 9 Worksheet   Homework 10
Module 11: Sinusoidal steady-state power analysis and complex power.

  Lecture 31 Slides   Lecture 31 Video   Exercises 31   Chapter 2.9.0   AC power
              Chapter 2.9.1   AC power analysis
  Lecture 32 Slides   Lecture 32 Video   Exercises 32    
              Chapter 2.9.2   Power factor correction

  Lab 10 Guide   Lab 10 Video   Lab 10 Worksheet   Homework 11