Converting Schematics to Physical Circuits

Project 1: Circuit Implementation

Emphasis on interpreting circuit schematics and creating corresponding physical circuits.

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Circuits with Multiple Sources

Project 2: Circuit Implementation

Utilizing the Analog Discovery's arbitrary waveform generator to provide the necessary amount of voltage for a multiple source circuit.

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Source Voltages Greater Than 5V

Project 3: Circuit Implementation

Using the Analog Discovery's arbitrary waveform generator to create a voltage source that's greater than 5V.

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Power Conservation

Circuit Elements Absorbing or Generating Power

Illustrating how power conservation is obeyed for a simple circuit by working through the example that's provided.

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Kirchhoff's Current Law

Project 1: Circuit Analysis

Make measurements to verify that Kirchhoff's current law is satisfied for some relatively arbitrary circuit.

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Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

Project 2: Circuit Analysis

Make measurements to verify that Kirchhoff's voltage law is satisfied for some relatively arbitrary circuit.

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Lumped Parameter Circuits and Nodes

Circuit elements in lumped parameters circuits are connected at nodes. Identification of circuit nodes will be extremely important to us when we are creating and analyzing circuits. Every node has a single unique voltage, so there can be no voltage drops (and thus no circuit elements) within a node. Perfect conductors do not cause voltage drops, so a node can contain perfect conductors.

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Ideal Independent Voltage and Current Sources

Circuit elements are commonly categorized as either passive or active. A circuit element is passive if the total amount of energy it delivers to the rest of the circuit (over all time) is non-positive. (Passive elements can temporarily deliver energy to a circuit, but only if the energy was previously stored in the passive element by the circuit.) An active circuit element has the ability to create and provide power to a circuit from mechanisms external to the circuit.

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The Importance of Reference Polarities in a Circuit

Passive Sign Convention

When creating an electrical circuit, the fundamental goal is to apply voltages to the circuit such that the current is directed to perform some useful task. In order to do this, it is absolutely necessary to keep track of the voltage polarity relative to the current direction. he sign convention used by electrical engineers is the passive sign convention—so called since it applies to passive circuit elements.

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Kirchhoff's Current Law

Understanding Nodes in a Circuit

Kirchhoff's current law and Kirchhoff's voltage law are the basis for analysis of lumped parameter circuits. These laws, together with the voltage-current characteristics of the circuit elements in the system, provide us with the ability to perform a systematic analysis of any electrical network. Kirchhoff's current law (commonly abbreviated in these exercises as KCL) states: The algebraic sum of all currents entering (or leaving) a node is zero.

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Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

Understanding Loops in a Circuit

KVL depends upon the concept of a loop. A loop is any closed path through the circuit which encounters no node more than once. Essentially, to create a loop, start at any node in the circuit and trace a path through the circuit until you get back to your original node.

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Single-Source Circuit Implementation

Design Challenge, Problem 1

This exercise uses concepts introduced in our experiment relative to implementing circuits with a single source.

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Single-Source Circuit Implementation

Design Challenge, Problem 2

This exercise uses concepts introduced in our experiment relative to implementing circuits with a single source.

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Single-Source Circuit Implementation

Design Challenge, Problem 3

This exercise uses concepts introduced in our experiment relative to implementing circuits with a single source.

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Single-Source Circuit Implementation

Design Challenge, Problem 4

This exercise uses concepts introduced in our experiment relative to implementing circuits with a single source.

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Multiple-Source Circuit Implementation

Design Challenge, Problem 1

This exercise uses concepts introduced in our experiment relative to implementing circuits with multiple sources.

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Source Voltages Greater Than 5V

Design Challenge, Problem 1

This exercise uses concepts introduced in our experiment relative to implementing circuits with multiple sources that are greater than 5V.

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Parallel Elements

Discussion of what it means for electrical elements to be in parallel.

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Open Circuits

An explanation of what an open circuit is.

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Short Circuits

An explanation of what a short circuit is.

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Pull-Down and Pull-Up Resistors

Discussion of how a resistor can either be used as a pull-up resistor or a pull-down resistor to tie a node in a circuit to a known voltage.

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Choosing a Current-Limiting Resistor

Discussion of the need to use resistors to limit the current in certain circuits.

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Design Simple Logic Circuit

Project 3: Guess the Logic

In this project, you will download a bit file to your board to configure the FPGA with four different logic circuits. The circuits use buttons and switches for inputs, and LEDs for outputs. You must probe the logic circuits by applying all possible combinations of input signals. From the results of applying all possible combinations you will be able to write logic equations that describe the circuits' behaviors. You will then rewrite the equations using Verilog HDL and re-implement them on FPGA and compare the circuit behavior with the given bit-file.

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Simple Combinational Circuit Design

Project 4: Majority of Five

How could you find a majority of the vote if each voter of five has a switch to vote for yes or no? The logic is fairly simple and will be used in this project. Any time there are three or more of the five who vote yes, then there is a majority and the LED needs to turn on.

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