Converting Schematics to Physical Circuits

Project 1: Circuit Implementation

Emphasis on interpreting circuit schematics and creating corresponding physical circuits.

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Circuits with Multiple Sources

Project 2: Circuit Implementation

Utilizing the Analog Discovery's arbitrary waveform generator to provide the necessary amount of voltage for a multiple source circuit.

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Source Voltages Greater Than 5V

Project 3: Circuit Implementation

Using the Analog Discovery's arbitrary waveform generator to create a voltage source that's greater than 5V.

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Power Conservation

Circuit Elements Absorbing or Generating Power

Illustrating how power conservation is obeyed for a simple circuit by working through the example that's provided.

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Kirchhoff's Current Law

Project 1: Circuit Analysis

Make measurements to verify that Kirchhoff's current law is satisfied for some relatively arbitrary circuit.

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Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

Project 2: Circuit Analysis

Make measurements to verify that Kirchhoff's voltage law is satisfied for some relatively arbitrary circuit.

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Lumped Parameter Circuits and Nodes

Circuit elements in lumped parameters circuits are connected at nodes. Identification of circuit nodes will be extremely important to us when we are creating and analyzing circuits. Every node has a single unique voltage, so there can be no voltage drops (and thus no circuit elements) within a node. Perfect conductors do not cause voltage drops, so a node can contain perfect conductors.

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Ideal Independent Voltage and Current Sources

Circuit elements are commonly categorized as either passive or active. A circuit element is passive if the total amount of energy it delivers to the rest of the circuit (over all time) is non-positive. (Passive elements can temporarily deliver energy to a circuit, but only if the energy was previously stored in the passive element by the circuit.) An active circuit element has the ability to create and provide power to a circuit from mechanisms external to the circuit.

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The Importance of Reference Polarities in a Circuit

Passive Sign Convention

When creating an electrical circuit, the fundamental goal is to apply voltages to the circuit such that the current is directed to perform some useful task. In order to do this, it is absolutely necessary to keep track of the voltage polarity relative to the current direction. he sign convention used by electrical engineers is the passive sign convention—so called since it applies to passive circuit elements.

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Kirchhoff's Current Law

Understanding Nodes in a Circuit

Kirchhoff's current law and Kirchhoff's voltage law are the basis for analysis of lumped parameter circuits. These laws, together with the voltage-current characteristics of the circuit elements in the system, provide us with the ability to perform a systematic analysis of any electrical network. Kirchhoff's current law (commonly abbreviated in these exercises as KCL) states: The algebraic sum of all currents entering (or leaving) a node is zero.

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Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

Understanding Loops in a Circuit

KVL depends upon the concept of a loop. A loop is any closed path through the circuit which encounters no node more than once. Essentially, to create a loop, start at any node in the circuit and trace a path through the circuit until you get back to your original node.

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Single-Source Circuit Implementation

Design Challenge, Problem 1

This exercise uses concepts introduced in our experiment relative to implementing circuits with a single source.

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Single-Source Circuit Implementation

Design Challenge, Problem 2

This exercise uses concepts introduced in our experiment relative to implementing circuits with a single source.

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Single-Source Circuit Implementation

Design Challenge, Problem 3

This exercise uses concepts introduced in our experiment relative to implementing circuits with a single source.

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Single-Source Circuit Implementation

Design Challenge, Problem 4

This exercise uses concepts introduced in our experiment relative to implementing circuits with a single source.

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Multiple-Source Circuit Implementation

Design Challenge, Problem 1

This exercise uses concepts introduced in our experiment relative to implementing circuits with multiple sources.

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Source Voltages Greater Than 5V

Design Challenge, Problem 1

This exercise uses concepts introduced in our experiment relative to implementing circuits with multiple sources that are greater than 5V.

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Voltage-Current Characteristics

In any electric circuit, our typical goal is to move charges around to perform some useful task. This involves both voltage differences and currents. We create voltage differences in the circuit, which provides energy differences (or electromotive forces) which move charges around, creating currents.

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Parallel Circuit Elements

This topic page will cover parallel circuit elements. Circuit elements are said to be connected in parallel if all of the elements share the same pair of nodes.

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Series Circuit Elements

How to Identify a Series

Series circuit elements share the same current. Elements in series can be recognized in two ways: If two and only two elements are connected to a single node, the elements are in series. If applying KCL at a node results in the conclusion that the currents in two elements are identical, the elements are in series.

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Parallel Resistors

Equivalent Resistance

Circuits which consist of resistors connected in parallel can be simplified. This topic page will explain how.

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Series Resistors

Equivalent Resistance

When resistors are connected in series, a simplification of the circuit is possible.

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Ohm's Law

Design Challenge 3: Choosing Resistance

A common problem in designing electric circuits is having to pick a resistance that provides the desired amount of current. In this project, we will create a circuit (i.e. choose a resistor) which results in a specified current being provided by a 5V source.

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Ohm's Law

Design Challenge 4: Current-Limiting Resistor

Resistors in electrical circuits are commonly used to provide other components in the circuit with the voltages and currents they require in order to function properly. For example, in this exercise, we will design our circuit (i.e. choose a resistance value) to ensure that an LED receives the voltage necessary for it to light up without allowing excessive current, which could burn out the LED.

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