Solderless Breadboards

And in-depth explanation on how solderless breadboards work. A Test Your Knowledge! section is included to enhance the understanding of solderless breadboards.

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Diodes and LEDs

And in-depth explanation of LEDs and diodes along with their basic functions. Includes a Test Your Knowledge! section to enhance the learning process.

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Piezoelectric Sensors

Some materials (certain crystals, for example) produce a charge when they are deflected; this is called a piezoelectric effect. Materials which exhibit this property are called piezoelectric materials or piezo materials. If a piezoelectric material is sandwiched between two conductors, or electrodes, a voltage difference is produced between the electrodes when the material is deflected.

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Hardware Multipliers

Hardware multipliers, based directly on adder architectures, have become indispensable in modern computers.

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Electronic Components

Devices that Allow a Circuit to Function Properly

Resistors are two-terminal devices that restrict, or resist, the flow of current. The larger the resistor, the less current can flow through it for a given voltage as demonstrated by Ohm's law. Electrons flowing through a resistor collide with material in the resistor body, and it is these collisions that cause electrical resistance.

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Printed Circuit Boards

The Base for Electrical Components

Electronic components are often assembled and interconnected on a flat surface known as a circuit board. The several types of existing circuit boards may be divided into two broad categories: those intended for prototype or experimental circuits, and those intended for production and/or commercial sale.

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How Hardware Implements Pulse-Width Modulation

An explanation of how hardware implements pulse-width modulation.

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Serial Communications

This section covers the hardware aspect of serial communications; how the message is sent through the wire and the general aspect of how the hardware works on the board.

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