Basic Circuit Concepts

Broad-brush introduction to current, voltage, and resistance as well as how these are related through Ohm's Law. Also the concepts of linear and non-linear behavior are introduced. IV relationship are discussed where a diode is used an an example of a non-linear device.

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Any output signal that tries to exceed the max and min bounds is clipped at a voltage slightly less than the rail voltage. This clipping is called saturation.

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Negative Voltage

A negative voltage only means that the point being measured is at a lower potential energy than the reference point.

Voltage dividers

Voltage dividers are commonly used circuits that split an applied overall voltage into a smaller desired voltage level.

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Transimpedance Amplifier

A transimpedance amplifier is a circuit that will produce a scaled output voltage that is proportional to a supplied input current (this type of circuit is often considered a current controlled voltage source).